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Thursday, May 21, 2020

CDOT GPON Technology- developed, patented globally and transferred to industry- but not a success story


C-DOT's GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) technology offers an excellent mix of triple play services (voice, data & video) to end users. This is an indigenous development of C-DOT and offers advantages in terms of appropriateness for Indian environment, Innovation & local manufacturing. Current technology delivers a downstream data rate of 2.5 Gbps and an upstream data rate of 1.25 Gbps on a single fibre over a distance of up to 60 Kms. One optical fiber from OLT can be shared with up to 128 users. Signals from the OLT to the ONT are encrypted (secure) and then broadcasted to workstation devices. Signals from the workstation devices are then multiplexed back to the OLT.
In 2011, Indian Minister for Communications and IT Kapil Sibal,  transferred Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) Technology to seven telecom manufacturers in public and private sectors – Indian Telephone Industries Ltd. (ITI), Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL), VMC Systems Ltd, United Telecoms Ltd. (UTL), Sai InfoSystem (India) and S M Creative Electronics Ltd . In addition, Technology transfer agreement has also been signed with Tejas Networks Limited for customized development and Electronics Corporation of India Ltd (ECIL). US patent (Patent number: 10567075) for GIS based centralized fiber fault localization system was filed in 2016 and received in 2020.
Adoption of GPON in enterprise environment was studied by Stanislav Milanovic. Applied GPON based POLs in the enterprise environment enabled the convergence of voice, data and video onto a single strand of single mode fiber, which reduced the network infrastructure hardware to a fraction of what is required in terms of cabling and electronics in the conventional Ethernet approach. The solution not only enabled easier maintenance, but also improved efficiency with regard to end user-related, adds, moves and changes. Deployed GPON based POLs in the enterprise environment extended service to any stationary Ethernet end point. It enabled the delivery of reliable and highly secure unified network providing IP voice, data, and any type of video over a single fiber. It also increased the size of the network building block which greatly simplified enterprise network deployment, operation, and management. The solution supported energy conservation, since the optical LAN infrastructure utilized passive components like optical distribution hubs and fiber plant that required no power or cooling, resulting in significant energy savings. Implemented POLs provided immediate return on investment and a low total cost of ownership compared to copper-based LANs.
GPON Vs EPON
EPON and GPON have their own advantages and disadvantages. GPON is better than EPON from the performance index. However, EPON has the advantage of time and cost. GPON is catching up and looking forward to the future broadband access market. GPON will be more suitable for customers with high bandwidth, multi-service, QoS and security requirements and ATM technology as the backbone. For cost-sensitive, QoS, security, less demanding customer base, EPON has become dominant.
EPON began massive deployments in Japan and  South Korea. In 2005, China Telecom started EPON field trial in 4 provinces to learn how to deploy EPON. Interoperability is critical for the success and deployment of  EPON widely, so China Telecom started IOP research in 2005. In 2007 CTC achieved large scale and all‐round chip and system  EPON IOP the first time in the world (3 chip vendors, 10 system  vendors). For operators with 1G EPON-based deployments — particularly Korea Telecom, Japan‘s NTT DOCOMO access, China Telecom and China Unicom, 10G EPON is quickly becoming the next-generation technology of choice for providing both asymmetric and symmetric 10 Gbps services. 10G EPON equipment shipments and revenue continue to grow, driven currently by China Telecom, which is in the process of upgrading a portion of its first-generation 1G networks to provide more bandwidth to multi-dwelling units, or MDUs.
EPON technology matured with Chinese Telecom service providers active participation. What about Indian Scenario?




Wednesday, May 13, 2020

venture debt in India

Venture debt was introduced in India 15 years ago. However, it has gained traction in the last decade. In these years, the Indian debt market for startups has been dominated by the likes of funds such as Alteria capital, Innoven capital and Trifecta capital. These firms combined have deployed approximately $300 mn (INR 2,200 crores) in startups such as Bigbasket, Curefit, Ninjacart, Dunzo and Lendingcart to name a few. In the last 6 years itself, approximately $4 bn of debt has been deployed across 150+ deals in India.  

Read article on Venture Debt in Economic Times prime (subscription required).
Also covered by Invest India. More at kauffman. And a legal perspective from Illinois.

Sunday, May 03, 2020

Will COVID change peoples behavior in India?- Nudge theory

There are comments that Indians will be better disciplined- follow Q, do not litter garbage etc after COVID19. 

Expectations are based on Nudge theory.
According to Thaler and Sunstein , a nudge is:
any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people’s behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. To count as a mere nudge, the intervention must be easy and cheap to avoid. Nudges are not mandates. Putting the fruit at eye level counts as a nudge. Banning junk food does not.

Richard Thaler bagging this year’s Economics Nobel for his work on behavioural economics has shone the spotlight on the ‘Nudge Theory.’ Thaler’s and Cass Sunstein’s 2008 book Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth and Happiness has had a wide impact with some governments even setting up ‘nudge units’ in their countries.Humans, being not-so-rational, often need encouragement or intervention — a nudge — to get going and do what’s best for the country or society at large. The ‘Nudge Theory’ recognises this behavioural trait. It says that people, rather than being forced, can be encouraged and influenced to pursue or desist from certain actions through nudges. Nudges are not mandates. So, while there is encouragement, there is no compulsion to comply and people have the freedom to choose other options.

Applying nudges is that public policy makers might thus supplement – or, perhaps, even replace traditional regulation with nudges to influence people’s everyday choices and behaviors in cheaper, less invasive, and more effective ways. That is, nudging seems to offer policy makers an effective way to influence citizens’ behavior without further restricting freedom of choice, imposing mandatory obligations, or introducing new taxation, or tax reliefs.

Public policy examples of ‘Nudge’ at work include automatic enrollment of employees into pension schemes in the UK and the opt-out system for organ donation in Spain. By making the optimal choice the default option for all citizens, these nudges have helped improve public participation in these programes.

Friday, May 01, 2020

Government of India’s Measures to Boost Business, Improve EoDB & Welcome FDI During COVID-19

The spread of Covid-19 in India and its mitigation plan of 40 day nationwide lockdown from 25 March 2020 to 3 May 2020 and a possibility of further extension of lockdown by several State Governments, there is likely to be a significant impact across various sectors of the economy. To address these adverse times, the Government of India has been preparing strategies and action plans not only for business continuity and sectoral revival but also re-rolling the red carpet for global investors to continue to choose India as their preferred destination for investments. The Government of India continues to enhance international co-operation for promoting FDI and improve Ease of Doing Business in the country by releasing notifications / amendments / circulars highlighting measures to improve business environment in India. Below are some of the special measures by Central government, State governments and the sectoral ministries to welcome and boost businesses in India. 
Download report here.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Hand washing Compendium for Low Resource Settings: A Living Document

Frequent and proper handwashing with soap is one of the most important measures that can be used to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus, along with physical distancing, avoiding touching one’s face (eyes, nose and mouth) and practicing good respiratory hygiene. Yet 40 per cent of households lack access to a facility with soap and water, of which 18 per cent have no facility whatsoever (WHO and UNICEF, 2020). 
 In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, the Sanitation Learning Hub at the Institute of Development Studies has rapidly developed the Handwashing Compendium for Low Resource Settings that can be used to support increased access to facilities and promote positive handwashing behaviours. 
 The compendium provides guidance on low-cost handwashing facilities that can be widely used in low and middle-income countries. We hope that this can be shared extensively as governments and agencies tackle the crisis in low and middle-income countries where handwashing facilities are urgently needed in households, communities, schools and healthcare facilities. 
 The compendium includes information and further reading on: • Handwashing facilities – including facilities that are accessible for all. • Environmental cues to reinforce handwashing behaviours. • Physical distancing hygiene promotion. 
 Download report.

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Natures UV light to UV-C LED for COVID 19




Like electricity, ultraviolet light is as old as the universe. It just took someone to notice. In 1877, British Physiologist Arthur Downes and scientist Thomas P. Blunt noticed. They put solution-filled test tubes outside and discovered that sunlight could kill and inhibit the development of pathogenic bacteria.
Some 25 years later, the German Ophthalmologist Ernst Hertel built on this knowledge, determining that light in the UV-C wavelength, rather than UV-A or UV-B, is the most effective for killing microorganisms. Around the same time, the Danish Professor Niels Finsen won the Nobel Prize for Physiology in recognition of his work in treating lupus vulgaris bacteria on human skin with concentrated light (See image). In the 1930s and 1940s, William F. Wells, a Harvard University sanitary engineer, made a significant stride in the knowledge and application of UV-C light for disinfection by proving its effectiveness in killing airborne microorganisms. It was Wells who discovered that bacteria and viruses can be transmitted to people through the air they breathe.
UV has been proven effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Viruses contain RNA or DNA and are thus susceptible to irradiation. Bacteria and fungi both contain DNA and are similarly vulnerable to UV light. Spores are also susceptible to UV. With the longstanding use of UV for disinfection, there is a plethora of information regarding dosages necessary to inactivate different microorganisms. Bacteria are generally easier to inactivate than viruses, with fungi and spores being even harder to inactivate with UV.  (Read the paper)


Monday, April 20, 2020

ARI researchers develop `Bug Sniffer'


Researchers at the Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), Pune, an autonomous institute under the Department of Science &Technology, Govt. of India, have developed a sensitive and low-cost sensor to rapidly detect bacteria.  The portable device can detect as low as ten bacterial cells from a sample size of one milliliter in just 30 minutes. At present, they are working on a method for simultaneous separation and detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.  Lead researcher Dr Dhananjay Bodas and his team from ARI call it the ‘bug sniffer,’ which is a biosensor that uses synthetic peptides, magnetic nanoparticles, and quantum dots to detect the presence of bacteria, providing a cost- and time-effective way of screening water and foodborne pathogens. The researchers also developed a chip comprising of microchannels made from copper wires and poly (dimethylsiloxane) The conventional techniques available for pathogen detection are less sensitive and cannot detect low cell numbers, besides being time-consuming and laborious whereas the ARI device, can detect pathogens with a limit of detection of 10 cells per 1 mL within 30 minutes.


Hot air sealing machine for PPE

There are reports that India's efforts to make PPEs in large quantity are hampered by absence of locally produced Hot Air Sealing machines. In this articlePrabir Jana, Professor, NIFT Delhi (India) with inputs from UNIK Technologyz (India) and Tukatech, Inc. (USA) demystify the making of body coverall on an industrial scale.