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Thursday, January 23, 2014

Emergence of entertainment and creative cluster at Hyderabad: Contribution of ANR

In the filmed entertainment sector Los Angeles, or Hollywood, has been the dominant cluster for many years and is the most globally recognised centre for film and television production. However, India is the largest market globally in terms of total box-office admissions and number of films produced. Filmed entertainment in India was estimated around 112 billion INR in 2012 by PWC expected to cross 200 billion INR by 2017. Digital distribution has transformed the markets with movies releasing with large number of prints across India and abroad thereby capturing revenues early combating piracy.
The market share of Hollywood films is about 9%, mostly from multiplexes in large metros. Indian film clusters evolved in a different way compared to Hollywood where all mainstream Hollywood films are produced, financed, distributed (and, to some extent, exhibited) by a handful of integrated media conglomerates (News Corp, Walt Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, NBC Universal, and Sony), and non-mainstream films are practically isolated from the mainstream system of finance and distribution. There is even structural difference amongst film clusters in Hyderabad and Chennai and Bollywood.
After Indian Independence in 1947, Bollywood films have been produced, financed, distributed, and exhibited in complex collaboration among hundreds of independent producers each owning a small-scale production company (with one or fewer annual releases), independent distributors (covering different regional territories), private financiers, and stand-alone cinema operators. seems to move towards an industry model based on alliances. Despite increased professionalism and horizontal integration in down stream processing & distribution, alliances mark the culture of Bollywood film cluster ushered in by refugee film producers, stars and entrepreneurs from Lahore. Star actors, even today are cast and signed though informal social relations, rather than through agents and lawyers, and unlike their Hollywood counterparts, written contracts are rarely used. The second category of social relations is those between producers and financiers. Since Bollywood's inception, producers have obtained most film finance either as advance payment from distributors or from private sources, and the production companies struck new finance and distribution deals for each production.

The growth of Film cluster in Hyderabad is attributed to Akkineneni Nagegewararao (ANR). At the height of popularity, he took a decision to shift to Hyderabad and insisted all his producers to shoot in Hyderabad only. He built his own studio in 1975. The formation of film cluster in Hyderabad shows that government initiatives like providing infrastructure (lands for studios, residence) and fiscal incentives (tax rebate , lower entertainment tax) etc are all important, a cluster champion is needed to form the nucleus.

Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Chinese Solar Mission

Chinese strategy in solar PV focussed on utilisation, manufacture and research with a synergistic policy. Interesting from Indian perspective as tend to see as all three components as mutually exclusive. Excerpts from UNU-MERIT working paper'  Diverse and uneven pathways towards transition to low carbon development: The case of diffusion of solar PV technology in China, Michiko Iizuka, (wp2014-002).
  • China (as of 2012) has the largest capacity for renewable power generation in the world, followed by the USA and Germany, and is one of the five largest countries in the world in terms of capacity for producing the following types of renewable energy: bio‐power (3rd), hydropower (1st), solar PV (4th), wind power (1st), solar water collection (1st), geothermal (2nd) in 2012 (REN21, 2013). 
  • As for manufacturing capacity, several Chinese firms, such as Goldwind, Sinovel and Migyang for wind energy and Yingli Green Energy and Trina Solar – to name a few – for solar PV, are considered the dominant players in the global export market for both wind turbine and solar PV respectively. The growing presence of China in terms of capacity to generate and manufacture renewable energy is accompanied by a growing capacity to innovate as the result of conscious efforts made by both private and public sectors.
  • The growing manufacturing capacity demonstrated by China’s export performance was accompanied by increasing technological efforts. Both government and firms attempted to close the technological gap with OECD countries. The results of these efforts can be observed from the rapid increase of indigenous R&D. Between 1996 and 2008, central government R&D appropriation for renewable energy increased from RMB 21.1 billion (US$2.5 billion) to RMB104.8 billion (US$15.2 billion), while expenditure by regional governments for the same purpose increased from RMB 7.8 billion (US$940 million) to RMB 105.7 billion (US$15.4billion) (Cao and Groba, 2013). 
  •  Parallel to such technological efforts, Chinese firms relied on the acquisition of foreign technologies using turnkey cell and module production lines and capital goods from the late 1990s to the early 2000s (de la Tour et al., 2011). During this time, the manufacturing activities of Chinese solar PV firms were concentrated on ‘easy‐to‐enter’ but ‘low‐profit‐margin’ activities of cell and module production. Subsequently, these firms’ cumulative efforts at in‐house R&D were complemented by strategies of joint R&D with universities and research institutes, as well as setting up overseas R&D facilities with government inducements for acquiring technology. Such R&D focused on crystalline silicon, which was the dominant technology at that time. Although the strongest presence of Chinese firms is still in downstream activities, i.e. cell and module production, firms have also invested in upstream activities such as the processing of silicon feedstock.
  • India adopted early- to- start and fast- to -vacate policy in solar PV too, established CEL in 1974, supported research regularly with small grants to IITs and increased utilisation of PV with Solar Mission.
  • Friday, January 17, 2014

    National Intellectual Property Awards-2014

    Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in partnership with Government of India (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion and Intellectual Property Office),  from 2009 onwards every year celebrates the World IP Day by  recognizing and rewarding  organization/ people who have contributed in harnessing the country’s intellectual capital and creating an eco-system that boosts creativity and innovation. Continuing the trend of felicitating the achievements in IP, CII and Intellectual Property  office, India is organizing the  National  Intellectual Property Awards on 26 April 2014  at Hotel Le Meridien, New Delhi. 

    The Categories for National IP Award, 2014 is as mentioned below:
    I.   Top Indian Academic institution in Patent.
    II.    Top R & D institution in Healthcare.
    III.   Top Indian Public Limited Company / Private Limited Company / Indian subsidiary of a  transnational corporation in Patent, for  research and development conducted in India and subsequent first filing in India for the said developed invention.
    IV.   Top Indian Private Company (MSME) in Patent.
    V.    Top Individual in Patent.
    VI.   Top Organization in Trade Mark.
    VII.  Top Organization in Design.
    VIII.  Top Individual in Design.
    IX.    Top Geographical Indication of Indian Origin

    Awardees will be selected by a jury comprising professionals from diverse fields such as: IP professionals, Industrialists and Industry Association, Academia, R&D professionals, Representative(s) of the Government of India. Selected applicants will be awarded cash prize of Rs.1,00,000/- each at an award ceremony hosted by the Indian IP Office in collaboration with Confederation of Indian Industry on 26 April 2014 in New Delhi .

    Applications are invited from the Indian industry (micro, small, medium, large), both private and public sector, as well as firms and societies, registered in India; Indian subsidiary of a transnational corporation; Indian Academic and R&D institutions; and individuals who have IPRs granted / registered by the Indian Intellectual Property Office.

    The  duly filled  application  form  is required to be sent to “Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks, Boudhik Sampada Bhawan, S M Road, Antop Hill, Mumbai-400037, so as to reach on or before 28 February 2014. (Please Note: The envelopes must be subscribed with “National IP Awards 2014”)

    The details on the awards & selection process and application form are attached for your reference. 

    For further details/clarity you can get in touch with Ms. Nabanita Mukherjee / Mr Gaurav Gupta (  @011-45772021/ 17.

    Monday, January 06, 2014

    IGCARL, Pulivendula offers lab space and residential areas to private firms under PPP/JV basis.

    Partnership is invited in the fields of :

    1. Biotechnology & Nanotechnology- Vaccine production, Diagnostic kits, stem cell etc.
    2.Molecular & Cytigenetics-DNA finger printing, transgenic animals, germplasm etc.
    3.Reproduction & Cryobiology- sexing of semen and embryos, cloning etc
    4.Microbiology & Immunology: culture development, production of SPF eggs etc.
    5.Animal Nutrition= genetic engineering of rumen microbes, Methan gas reduction, Enzymes etc.