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Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Climate Change agreements and technology transfer

No less than a technological revolution, both in the development of new technologies and in enhancing access to existing technologies by developing countries, is necessary to enabling action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.Several technologies are identified in UNFCCC report:
Technologies for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions:
 Examples of technologies for mitigating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions may include:
• Energy efficiency;
• Renewable energy technologies, including solar panels, wind turbines, biomass and hydro-power generation, as well as technologies for geothermal energy and ocean energy;
• Carbon capture and storage, which involves capturing carbon dioxide before it can be emitted into the atmosphere, transporting it to a secure location, and isolating it from the atmosphere, for example by storing it in a geological formation;
• Hybrid vehicles, for example those that switch between electric and combustion engines;
• Nuclear power.
Examples of technologies for mitigating methane (CH4) emissions may include:  
• Animal waste management: Methane released from liquid manure management systems can be captured and used to meet a portion of a farm’s energy requirements or simply flared;
• Livestock management: Improved nutrition and grazing management has been identified as effective in increasing efficiency and reducing methane emissions;
• Landfill methane capture and use: The principal approach to reducing methane emissions from landfills involves the collection and combustion or use of landfill gas. Landfill gas utilization technologies focus on electricity generation and direct gas use;
• Natural gas and oil systems: Current opportunities for reducing methane emissions include both process and hardware improvements, such as equipment upgrades.
Examples of technologies for mitigating nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions may include:
• Matching nitrogen supply with crop demand, tightening nitrogen flow cycles, and optimising tillage, irrigation and drainage could reduce nitrous oxide emissions from fertiliser use by 19%;
• Fertiliser: Nitrogenous fertilizers play an important role in increasing crop yields. Reducing N2O emissions can include the use of low N2O-emitting fertilizer or the use of slow-release fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors.
Examples of technologies for mitigating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions may include:
• Improved design, tighter components, and recovery and recycling during servicing and disposal of refrigeration, air conditioning, and heat pumps can reduce lifetime HFC emissions at moderate to low costs.
Technologies for adaptation to adverse impacts of climate change:
Examples of technologies for coastal areas:
• Accommodate sea-level rise (improved drainage, emergency planning);
• Protect against sea-level rise (hard, soft and indigenous technologies);
• Managed retreat.
Examples of technologies in the agricultural and fishing industries:
• Tolerant/resistant crop varieties (to drought/heat, salt, insects/pests);
• Efficient water utilization and improved irrigation systems;
• Heat-tolerant livestock breeds.
Examples of technologies for water resources:
• Water recycling and conservation (including rainwater harvesting);
• Water desalination.
Examples of technologies for health improvement:
• Disease monitoring and surveillance;
• Upgrading of drinking water and sanitation.
Examples of technologies for systematic observation and monitoring:
• Improved data collection;
• Improved data management and data processing systems.

Working in these areas-  share the information.

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